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Alternative Housing Types

Papecrete Dome

Papecrete Dome

Picture: Dave Pennington, http://www.synergyfish.com/

I’ve become keenly aware of the cost to operate my house and pay utility costs! This has ushered in the topic of sustainability into my thinking. IE What is my alternative? Housing is a big area with which to lower my cost of living. So I stray from the purely Aquaponics topics on my website. Do forgive me.

There are two (2) types of alternative housing, expensive and inexpensive.

The expensive types are the conventional houses and the energy star green houses which cost more to build and less to operate. That’s about it.

Let’s talk about the inexpensive or at least less expensive housing options

  1. Trailers
  2. Manufactured housing
  3. Old homes, conventionally built
  4. Dome homes
  5. Bermed earth or underground homes
  6. Earthships

Number 1-3 cost too much to operate and tend to not last many years, requiring cash infusions

Number 4 is a good option but not much less in cost than a conventional home

Number 5 is more costly to build and less costly to operate

Number 6 is less cost to build and less cost to operate.

There is a caveat though. Any house that is self sufficient, i.e. off the grid pays a premium for the systems to do that. It is a long term investment that pays for itself in 7-10 years and offers bonuses of paying off quicker if utility prices rise, which is a good bet they will.

The good thing is you can go off grid with any of the houses. The pay back is just quicker with the more efficient houses like number 4-6.

Which House

So the question becomes which alternative inexpensive housing type is for you? My guess is most of us would prefer a dome, bermed house or and Earthship because they cost less to operate.

The house that is more conventional, and most widely accepted – think building codes- is the dome. It does suffer from poor coatings that don’t last well over years and are expensive to repair. They get moisture under their plastic coating and the heat makes it separate. This is a minor inconvenience as compared to the ease of getting a dome built and the low cost to heat and cool it. Pluses are wind resistant and fire proof, stands up well to hail, and is quick to build. Loans are even available for these type homes.

The house easiest to build yourself that can be built most inexpensively, that stands up well to weather, wind, and fire, and that can save you the most on heating, cooling, and living expenses is the Earthship. It can also be the most attractive if you like Adobe looking, curved walls and ceilings and bright open spaces. Also, if you want to go off grid there is no other house that can beat it for the operating cost. Plus it is easier on the earth to build and operate, than any other house. No loans available on these type houses, yet.

The optimal house would be an Earthship with an insulated concrete or Papercrete dome for the roof and an isolated and very well insulated and balanced thermal mass that includes the floor, walls, and cistern. Not hard to accomplish, just lots of labor and a considerable expense for materials.

Why Alternative Housing

What is your why? Why do you want alternative housing? Is it to build a house small enough that you can pay for quickly, to lower heating and cooling costs, to save money long term, and to live off grid?

An Earthship will do that for you. A well insulated dome with proper outside and inside coatings will do it as well. The dome is easier to get a building permit for, if you are building near or in a city. If you are building in an unregulated area, i.e. far away from a city without a HOA or at least with a co-operative HOA, then an Earthship can be your ticket.

Insulation vs. Thermal mass

Thermal mass, the earth and cistern water behind the main Earthship wal,l provides moderation of the change of temp in the house. It tries to keep the temp the same. The earth’ temp is about 58 degrees several feet below ground. If the goal is to keep a constant temp in the house this helps. The challenge becomes fighting that constant temp if it is too high or too low compared to what you want it to be.

Winter temp outdoors is cold; inside it is 58 to 68 degrees depending on the sun energy stored in the building over the day. Too cool for most in the winter, so you run a small heater, like a rocket stove burning wood.

Same thing happens in the summer in reverse. It is hot outside, 70-80 degrees inside depending on the sun energy stored in the building over the day. You get a breeze coming through and temp is better regulated. Challenge is that every day it is hot outside, you have less energy stored in the thermal mass, and its temp creeps upward during those hot summer days. At some point you need to add a little air conditioning or to just use fans and suffer higher than preferred temperatures.

HVAC

So summary, the thermal mass concept works well for saving energy but still needs a small supplemental HVAC system, or you must tolerate a little imperfection.

A well insulated dome house also requires a small supplemental HVAC system, or you must tolerate a little imperfection. No thermal mass here, just a very low loss house, so you keep the heating or cooling you pay for indoors.

Either a thermal mass (Earthship) or a well insulated house (dome) will require a small HVAC system to keep most of us comfortable.

Thermal mass houses have over swing and under swing, but saves cost as it make thermal contributions much of the time.

A well insulate house has no thermal contribution, but also has no thermal mass over and under swings. I’d submit both would cost about the same to heat and cool for a year, everything else being the same.

A house with a thermal mass (Earthship or bermed) is usually underground and or bermed, risking water hydraulic issues. Most highly insulated houses, green start rated conventional or well insulated domes, do not suffer the water hydraulics challenges.

Best House

Which alternative inexpensive house is best? The one you like the most, that you can afford, and that building codes will allow you to build. Once you decide which type inexpensive alternative house to build, also plan on adding off-grid capabilities to it.

Aquaponics 101

squashblossom

Squash Blossom

What is Aquaponics? Perhaps the most useful explanation is a good definition.

Aquaponics is a sustainable food production system that combines aquaculture with hydroponics
Aquaculture is r
aising aquatic animals such as fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks
Hydroponics is cultivating plants in water without soil using mineral nutrient solutions
Therefore Aquaponics is raising aquatic animals and cultivating plants in water

Aquaponics is a way to combine two food production systems into one system. By doing this we get the advantages of both without the disadvantages, and create a self sustaining, ecologically sound system that mirrors what is found in nature. It is a complete cycle of symbiotic relationships. The added mineral nutrients and the frequent water changes of Hydroponics is eliminated.

The system, when in balance tends to stay in balance unless overloaded or abused. Some minor adjustments are needed over time to keep the pH balance and temperature extremes can affect plants and fish. After the system is running 30-60 days it requires little attention or maintenance.

You need only a few fish to allow the system to produce lots of plants and produce. For example, 250 gallons of water, with 10-15 pounds of fish, will nourish 128 large normal garden plants or more.

An Aquaponic system consists of:

  • Water
  • Fish
  • Plants
  • Water circulation
  • Aeration of the water
  • Fish wastes
  • Two key beneficial bacteria found everywhere
  • Biology that converts Ammonia from fish into Nitrites and then Nitrates
  • Mechanical filtration of the water
  • Only minor additions of key ingredients, usually minerals to stabilize the pH
  • No outside influences, fertilizers, or chemicals

The only ingredient you add regularly is fish food. The fish eat and gain weight and reproduce. Their waste converts into fertilizer for the plants and the plants clean the water for the fish. You can eat the fish and the plants and even feed the plants not used back to the fish. It is safe, natural, and very healthy. It is totally organic

Aquaponics dates back 1000s of years. The Aztec cultivated agriculture in lake shallows and in China and Thailand fish were raised in rice fields that were flooded. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquaponics)

Chemicals cannot be sprayed onto the vegetables, because the fish will suffer. Garden pests are kept to a minimum because the plants are off of the ground and often kept in a green house. Because the plants have plenty of nutrients, water, and air – and are kept at a more constant temperature – they tend to grow very healthy and much faster. This makes them more bug and disease resistant.

To start up an Aquaponics system you need to remove harmful chemicals from the water like chlorine or chloramine, avoid any elements like limestone or marble that changes the pH,  and get the biology going. Getting the biology balanced requires time for the good bacteria to start growing and for the system to get in balance regarding pH, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrates. This process is call “start-up” or “The Nitrogen Cycle”. It takes from 30 to 60 days typically. During that time you can be growing plants and if you are careful, even have your fish in the tank. Many people do a “fish-less start-up” so there are less variables to watch and control, then add the fish when the biology is balanced.

There is a lot of information to learn but none of it is hard to understand. The hardest part of Aquaponics is changing your gardening paradigms and learning to leave it alone, after it is biologically balanced.

The benefits of Aquaponics:

  • Faster growing, higher density, healthier plants
  • Ease of maintenance
  • Little costs once established – just fish food and a mineral or two a few times a year
  • Lots of beneficial birds, bugs, and bees
  • Great home grown taste in produce
  • Fresh fish
  • Fragrant spices, herbs, and plants
  • Amazing displays of mother nature

Wouldn’t you love to have fresh produce a few steps away from your kitchen?